Revising with Non-Revisors

By Faith Nyakundi & Jesse Moneyhun

A new writing prompt or thought is always another adventure, and a chance to express myself. This is not always an exciting adventure, especially when it is a class prompt, and I have to make sure that I express my thoughts according to the expectation of the teacher. This is however made easier by the fact that the teacher gives guidance to how she wants the text to be approached and any limitations.

We have heard stories of students told to revise their essays. Reasons that professors give are to increase the length, clarify ideas, or to simplify ideas. Students have no choice other than to do this because they are concerned about their grades. Being one of the students who has been in situations like that, I would say it is simply an uphill task. I revise as I write my essay, therefore, every sentence that I write leads to the next sentence as my ideas flow, and I make sure that each of my paragraphs is comprehensive before I move to the next. I have been taught that when writing that I need to develop thesis with every paragraph. This is one the reasons that makes it difficult to “expand” an essay that I consider complete.

What does “expansion” really entail? And how does this affect the final product? Some students end up just adding new sentences to what they already had, but doesn’t this interrupt the flow of sentences? For class we read a piece of writing from a student who had been asked to expand an introductory paragraph. The final product was a piece was filled with repeated phrases, and it was clear that the student felt that what they had was enough already and all they did was rephrase ideas. This ends up being a worse product than the earlier version because it is redundant. When one is asked to revise or rewrite then it feels as if one is writing a whole new essay, so I would rather get a new prompt to write on and then get guidance on the same. It is clear therefore that whether or not expansion means an increase words, it is easy to lean in that direction.

Various English classes have also taught us that writing is a continual process, and that we should understand that the journey to the idea is just as important as the idea itself. In many ways, the process of writing can be used as a tool for self-discovery. Many writers subscribe to this philosophy, and prefer their writing process to be a sort of self-editing stream-of-consciousness. Therefore any extensive editing or revision to the end product may be seen as disturbing the paper’s flow. However, students are most often graded on their end product, not on their “journey,” and academic writers who prefer to edit as they go rather than revise afterwards may have clarity issues that come about from the “writing as a journey” philosophy. Since academia seems to hold clarity in very high regard, this friction between the stream-of-consciousness writer and the revision process tends to hold these sorts of writers back.

The task is then to find a way to link up these writers to the revision process in such a way that helps them clarify their ideas while also keeping intact what they feel the main ideas of their paper are. For these writers, their thesis or main ideas are usually at the end. Their paper has gradually lead up to it. Some may have done a bit of revision and replaced the intro with the conclusion, but the loose ends of self-discovery are still found throughout the paper. As tutors, it is our job to help them tie their paper together tightly. Here is an exercise that may help these writers (even if you are one yourself).


1. Ask them to map out their papers visually on the back of their essays. If you want, make one yourself and compare the two. What they think they wrote and what they actually wrote might be different.

2. Even if the professor is asking for expansion, the student’s paper still often needs to be condensed before it can be expanded. Comparing maps can help with this.

3. Ask them what their thesis is. If they can’t explain it confidently, you may need to work on their thesis with them before anything else.

4. Go line by line (or paragraph by paragraph if you don’t have time) backwards from end to finish and ask them the function of each sentence. All sentences should in some way help explain the thesis of the paper. Keep the best sentences.

5. Try to reduce the paper to the size of a rough paragraph. Obviously, this does not incorporate much evidence or leave much room for flowery language. They will realize this and want to expand it almost immediately.

6. Once this is completed, ask them to try expanding from this paragraph, slowly adding only what’s necessary. For the sake of time, this step can take the form of expanding to an outline rather than a full-fledged essay.

7. Compare the end product to the map that they made at the beginning of the session. The more times this exercise is completed, the more clear and precise their paper should become.

8. Help them understand that in this case, their ideas are what is important. Their writing should clearly and efficiently represent what’s in their head. If their language gets in the way, different language should be used.


This exercise should be aimed at developing the writer and not the writing. Make sure that the focus is broadly on “elucidating ideas,” not necessarily on making this specific paper more clear. If done earnestly, this exercise may produce greater consciousness of argument construction and encourage revision by blurring the line between correction of language and expression of ideas. Also, any one of these steps could be performed on their own or in conjunction with different exercises. Have fun and tailor the exercise to the writer’s needs.

Reading for Comprehension: Tips on reading for speed and utility

You cannot separate reading from writing; all good writing grows out of sharp reading comprehension. Often, professors assign more reading than seems possible. But, fear not! You do not need to read every article, chapter, or report with the same degree of focus. However, you do need to be able to identify when to skim and when to dive deeply into a text. We have identified three stages of reading comprehension. Each stage has specific tips that will help you develop a stronger understanding of the text at hand. That said, sometimes approaching essay writing feels like staring down the enemy across battle lines. Reading, outlining, and eventually drafting an essay is akin to coordinating battle plans as a general. Here, new generals, is your strategy for successful combat in the field of reading and writing.


Scout the Enemy:

When you are at the outset of the writing process with many potential sources, it can be helpful to sift through these texts with a keen eye. Speed-reading can also help you prepare for class discussions involving material you do not write about. For both of these tasks, we draw upon specific strategies that will allow you to gain a useful understanding of the main ideas of a text at an ambitious pace.

  • Save yourself some time by focusing on abstracts, introductions, and conclusions. Authors, especially of published work, are fairly disciplined about providing their main points in predictable places. By attacking these main bodies first, you can gain a strong understanding of what questions the author answers in his or her writing.
  • Next, we suggest looking for useful sign-posts and quotations. You can cut through a lot of fluff by looking for headers, quotations, and transitional phrases. A signpost is direct phrasing that alerts the reader what the author will talk about in the coming text.
  • Lastly, we borrow the common expression: SQR3. This useful strategy calls for you to ‘survey’, ‘question’, ‘read’, ‘recite’, and ‘review’ the text before you. While SQR3 cuts down reading time, it requires much more engaged reading than simply going line-by-line through a text.

Arm Yourself:

This more intermediate step of reading comprehension requires a little more time and effort on your part but rewards you with a deeper understanding of the text.

  • Looking up terms. There’s no specific rules about when you should use a dictionary or not. But if a term comes up a lot and you don’t know what it means, you should probably look it up!  The Swarthmore College writing blog warns, “An initial mistake about the meaning of a term can rapidly multiply into a gigantic misreading if you’re not careful.” Do not look up every word though. You will go crazy!
  • Mark up your text. Underline or highlight topic sentences, summary sentences, and sentences containing signposts. However, don’t mark everything or your markings will lose significance. Be tactful.
  • Note where you are confused. Use a different color or line type to mark what you don’t understand. After reading the rest of the text you may be able to answer your own questions.
  • Use the “Look Away” method. Periodically look away from the text and ask yourself what you’ve read. Your summary should be different than the text. Use your own words or use a visual technique like a drawing that can serve as a quick reminder when you look back at the text.


Go to War:

Sometimes you need a very thorough understanding of the text. Perhaps you are presenting the material you read, perhaps you are writing about it, or perhaps you are even using quotes or ideas from it in your own writing. When this is the case you need to take more time with the reading.

  • Outline. Most of us are familiar with basic outline. If the author of your text has been a clear and organized, this can be a helpful technique to grasp the nuances of the author’s argument.
  • Mind Map. Another great way to really solidify the material is to create a mind map. Mind maps are like an outline but much more visual. First, write down the most important word, short phrase, or symbol for the center or your mind map. Next, post other important concepts outside the circle. Then you can rearrange, color code and draw arrows among these different concepts to deepen your understanding about the author’s argument.
  • Identify counter arguments. For distinct understanding of the reading, challenge it! Identify holes in the author’s arguments and assert your own counterarguments. Criticizing the text may be the best fodder for your own writing.


Next time you sit down to read, ask yourself: what am I reading for? How deeply do I need to understand the text? How much time do I have to read? Make your battle plan accordingly putting to use the helpful tips we have provided above.

Good luck, writing generals.

Sentence-level Repetition: When It Works, When It Doesn’t, and Why It Matters

“Rep.” It’s a common marking on graded academic papers, and can refer to the repeated use of ideas, sentence structures, or individual words within a small span of text. In college classes we often refer to repetition as a weakness. While this can be true—much repetition is needless—it can also be a powerful tool for writers. When is repetition effective? When is it ineffective? How can we eliminate needless repetition and cultivate productive repetition? How many times is it acceptable to use the word “repetition” in a paragraph?

Writers can repeat whole ideas; they can also repeat at the sentence level, reusing sentence structures and individual words. In this post, we focus on sentence-level repetition, acknowledging that it often goes hand-in-hand with the repetition of ideas. We choose this focus because the recurrence of words and structures is a sentence-level dynamic with global effects. Repetition tends to show up throughout entire works, not just in a handful of sentences. Learning how to reuse and restate more productively can inform the whole piece of writing.

Here are some examples of sentence-level repetition. How is each author using repetition? Is he/she doing so effectively, or not?

1.) “I write as ritual. I write because I am not employable. I write out of my inconsistencies. I write because then I do not have to speak. I write with the colors of memory. I write as a witness to what I have seen.” –Terry Tempest Williams, “Red”

2.) “The nexus where television and fiction converse…is self-conscious irony. Irony is, of course, a turf fictionists have long worked with zeal. And irony is important for understanding TV because T.V…revolves off just the sorts of absurd contradictions irony’s all about exposing.” –David Foster Wallace, “E Unibus Pluram”

3.) “We do not usually think about hope (as embedded in contexts) and dignity (as signaled through commodities) at the same time.” –Allison Pugh, Longing and Belonging: Parents, Children, and Consumer Culture

4.) “We hold these Truths to be Self-Evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness…” -The Declaration of Independence


Knowing when and how to use repetition effectively can make your writing clearer, more cohesive, and more powerful. Let’s look at some of the most common uses for word/phrase repetition and structural repetition.

Repetition of words and phrases:

TO EMPHASIZE:  In example #1 above, Williams begins each sentence with the phrase “I write.” This repetition establishes her main focus: it is not “employability” or “memory,” but the personal act of writing. If you want to call your reader’s attention to a critical word or phrase, it can help to repeat it over the course of the passage–especially in concluding sentences.

The key here is moderation: repetition in the name of emphasis is not an excuse to use the same word three times in one sentence. To figure out whether you are creating productive emphasis through repetition, you might ask yourself these questions: 1.) Is the repeated word or phrase one that you want to be emphasizing? If yes, progress to question 2.) Does the repetition bog down the passage and/or make it harder to read (see the next section)? If the answer is no, you are good to go.

TO CREATE TRANSITIONS: In example #2 above, Foster Wallace uses the word “irony” in three successive sentences. In doing so, he links them (and the ideas they contain) while using few formal transition words. We can repeat a word/phrase to build transitions between paragraphs as well as within them: writing a topic sentence, it can help to reuse in a word/phrase from the concluding sentence of the previous paragraph.

TO AVOID AWKWARD PHRASING: Sometimes it’s impossible to remove a repeated word without making the sentence more confusing. If we tried to take out the repetition of “irony” in the second example above, it might read something like this (changes italicized):

“The nexus where television and fiction converse…is self-conscious irony. This self-aware phenomenon is, of course, a turf fictionists have long worked with zeal. And the expression of meaning by saying the opposite is important for understanding TV.”

The new passage is imprecise and hard to read. Better to just repeat the word “irony.”

Repetition of sentence structures:

TO LINK SUCCESSIVE SENTENCES: Terry Tempest Williams’ list (example #1 above) roams far and wide but never feels disorganized. This is in large part because the repeated “I write” serves as an anchor, tethering the sentences to each other and building cohesion.

The reuse of a particular word or phrase at the start of successive sentences–often to link those sentences to each other–is called anaphora. Anaphora is one type of parallel structure.

TO BUILD MOMENTUM: Try reading this one aloud: “We hold these Truths to be Self-Evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness–”

We can feel the pressure building. Repeating a clausal structure (in this case, “that” [+new idea]) heightens the momentum and power of the sentence.


Although repetition can be an effective rhetorical device, it can also obstruct the flow of ideas if used needlessly. Repetition can occur at the level of words, structure, or meaning as illustrated in the following examples.

Problem 1: Repetition at the word level

INEFFECTIVE: When Sally finished reading the newspaper, she gave the newspaper to her brother.

INEFFECTIVE: When Sally finished reading the newspaper, she gave the periodical to her brother.

EFFECTIVE: When Sally finished reading the newspaper, she gave it to her brother.

The first example repeats ‘newspaper’ multiple times and the result sounds clumsy. Replacing the repeated term with a synonym in the second example is an obvious and clunky attempt to avoid repetition. The third sentence best addresses the redundancy by replacing the second term with a pronoun. In general, repetition at the word level can usually be solved by substituting the repeated word with a pronoun or, if possible, removing some of the repeated terms.

Problem 2:  Repetition of structure

INEFFECTIVE: In the park, we played a game. At the time, it was fun. Of the participants, Andy was the winner.

EFFECTIVE: We played a fun game in the park and Andy won.

All of the sentences in this example are short and lead with a preposition. A stronger rewrite condenses the ideas into a single compound sentence that dramatically reduces the word count. While repeating a grammatical structure across multiple sentences can be stylistically effective, it must be done in the right context. The short and informal recollection in this example did not merit special prose. Repetitive structures can usually be fixed by varying sentence types or moving word groups (e.g. prepositions, clauses, etc.) to a different place in the sentence.

Problem 3: Repetition of meaning

INEFFECTIVE: Over and over, we repeatedly bought the pizzas that our favorite athletes ate. The reason we bought these pizzas was because we wanted to imitate them.

EFFECTIVE: We repeatedly bought the pizzas that our favorite athletes ate because we wanted to imitate them.

This example has several layers of problematic repetition. First, the initial sentence uses both ‘repeatedly’ and ‘over and over’ to illustrate frequency when one term would suffice. Second, both sentences include the fact the authors bought the pizza. A good rule of thumb in writing is that every word or phrase should contribute something new to the work. In this case, it is mentioned in both sentences that the pizzas were bought and only the initial mention is necessary. Condensing the sentences is a natural way to eliminate the repeated information and is a good overall strategy to remove repeated content.


1) Read the tutee’s paper aloud: Because repetition often impedes rhythm, the tutee may be better at recognizing repetition aurally rather than visually. This is the most nondirective approach to eliminating repetition but it does require that the tutee have a well developed ear for rhythm.

2) Underline repetitive elements: If a particular word, phrase, or structure is particularly pervasive, the tutor and tutee can work together to highlight all instances of that repetition. This visual representation increases the tutee’s self-awareness of their writing style so they can fix and avoid further redundancy.

3) Model techniques that eliminate repetition: Sometimes it may be difficult for the tutee to identify or eliminate needless repetition. In these cases, the tutor can point out some of the repetitive areas and demonstrate how to fix them using some of the above techniques.

4) Demonstrate effective repetition: Tutors can introduce repetition as a tool for improving transitions or cohesion, two aspects that come up frequently in tutoring sessions.

Contributed by Sabrina and Abby

Revising for Clarity

by Natalie Pond & Hanne Jensen

Revising for Clarity

Imagine you are reading a paper, and you come across this passage—how would you respond?

Moreover, both Wilder and Murray communicate either incomprehensibly or illogically, further shedding doubt on their abilities to provide Jack with any form of truth at all. Ultimately, Jack discovers Murray’s linguistic dissection of the sublime to be over-generalized and therefore incomplete in comparison to Wilder’s inaccessible embodiment of the sublime, which presents fewer demands on Jack’s thinking and a simpler, safer example to follow.

These sentences are grammatically correct, complete thoughts. Yet they don’t quite do the work of a piece of writing: that is, they don’t make their intended meaning expressly clear for the reader.

“Clarity” is at the core of all writing. Writers put in effort in the hopes that their words will be read and understood, for a grade or otherwise. This blog identifies a few strategies to approach the nebulous task of “revising for clarity,” and to posit some of the pitfalls possible in attempting this revision process.

  1. Remove “non-essential” words.

This in itself is not particularly clear advice. Let’s refine it! Some helpful places to start removing or improving words include:

  • Eliminating “to be” verbs.

Example: Students writing clearly is the professor’s primary concern. The professor wants students to write clearly.

The more active verb “wants” replaces the “to be” verb of the first sentence, which makes the sentence less awkward, and forwards its point more effectively—to describe the relationship between the professor and his or her desire for students to write clearly.

  • Removing the passive voice.

Example: The research paper was affected by unclear writing Unclear writing affected the research paper.

In this example, the sentence should convey that the problem at hand is unclear writing. However, in the first sentence, the passive sentence construction constructs “the research paper” as the recipient of the action and thus the focus of the sentence. The second sentence fixes this problem by turning “unclear writing” into the active agent, which clarifies the concern of the sentence.

  • Taking out words that are synonymous.

Example: The paper was smart and intelligent. The paper was smart.

Although one could debate the interchangeability of smart and intelligent, if these terms are not explicitly defined in the paper, it seems much more logical to select one adjective in order to avoid redundancy.

  • Taking out words that do not contribute to the sentence’s overall argument.

Example: The writer understands the way in which their writing is confusing, and wants to improve it. The writer understands that their writing is confusing, and wants to improve it.

Excess phrases like “the way in which” simply distance the reader from the point of the sentence—cutting these words does nothing to the meaning of the sentence; it only helps the reader by removing the excess.

2.     Use simpler constructions to explain ideas, where possible.

Example: The professor’s advice had the effect of improving the student’s writing The professor’s advice helped the student’s writing.

In tandem with our earlier suggestion to remove words that do not contribute to the sentence’s overall argument, this example shows how removing those words and streamlining the sentence with an active verb creates a sentence construction that simply but clearly makes its point.

3.     Avoid repeating the same idea in similar wording from one sentence to the next.

Redundancy is not just a concern within single sentences—it is easy to restate the same ideas over and over again in slightly different wording. Ask yourself, which sentence describes the idea best? Are their specific words or phrases from multiple sentences I like that could be combined into a single, clearer sentence?

4.     Use the best words, not the most words.

In some ways, this is a reiteration of some of our previous advice, but it is a good mantra to consider. A few choice words can go a long way, and avoid the problem of losing your reader out of confusion or even boredom.

5.     Sympathize with the reader.

What information does a reader have to know? What idea(s) must be contained in this one sentence? Is it possible to separate sentences, cut excess phrases that only detract from the ideas, or try any of the other suggestions mentioned in this blog to help the reader’s understanding? What context might they need to understand your thought? All these are questions to ask in thinking about the reader’s point of view, as someone completely new to your thought process and understanding your idea.

Just for fun, check out how some of these ideas can help that first confusing passage we showed you:

Moreover, both Wilder and Murray communicate either incomprehensibly or illogically, further shedding doubt on their abilities to provide Jack with any form of truth at all. Ultimately, Jack discovers Murray’s linguistic dissection of the sublime to be over-generalized and therefore incomplete in comparison to Wilder’s inaccessible embodiment of the sublime, which presents fewer demands on Jack’s thinking and a simpler, safer example to follow.


Jack struggles to understand Wilder and Murray, because their modes of communication fail to express ideas clearly. However, he perceives that Murray’s language, which is pretentious and academic, cannot truly grasp any notion of the sublime, while Wilder’s seemingly incomprehensible crying mystically captures the sublime even without words.

This revision attempts to incorporate our suggestion of “use the best words, not the most words.” The verbs are now more active; excess “to be” verbs were slashed and replaced; and vague terminology such as the “inaccessible embodiment of the sublime” has been revisited to get at the same idea with improved, more directed words.

Hopefully these suggestions will help with overall clarity. But, as is the case with most aspects of writing, simply following these instructions won’t guarantee that your writing will be “better.” There are a few more things to consider when “revising for clarity.”

1. Who is your audience?

The purpose of writing varies based on the project. An instruction manual for a chainsaw is, in many ways, quite different from a poem. Differences in writing styles and purposes also has an effect on what “clarity” means for that project. The chainsaw manual should probably be extremely literal, leaving no room for personal interpretation, whereas the poem has more leeway to be purposefully vague or metaphorical. The same is true for a personal essay versus an academic paper versus a lab report. Most of the techniques we propose above are generally good ideas to employ, but you may find yourself needing to tweak them for your purposes.

2. What is getting lost?

Sometimes the only changes in revision are beneficial. Often, however, revising is a balancing act between clarity and style. Many sentences seem flat after revision, bereft of cadence or longer, more complex words. Sometimes the original emphasis disappears with the “non-essential” words. Try to notice what you edit out as you revise– does the sentence still convey the same message when you’re finished?

3. Unpack your ideas!

Many students who struggle with clarity (particularly repetition, long or overwrought clauses, and over-inflated language) are facing word-counts, page limits, or the pressure to write “academically.”

But often, the writing is not the root of the problem. Confused paragraphs that reiterate one idea with slight variations reveal an unexamined problem: the writer does not know precisely what she wants to say. More often than not, unclear writing is a symptom of unclear thinking. This is not to say that the writer doesn’t understand what she means or what she wants to say. Quite the contrary! More complex ideas often take more time to sort out, particularly when they must be formatted into clear, readable prose. Consider the following example:

“In A Masque Presented at Ludlow Castle, Milton emphasizes the role of dialectic discourse in unifying traditional ideals of virtue with the importance of chastity as a means to understand the power of purity and choice in being a virtuous person.”

This thesis statement combines several ideas, but it isn’t necessarily clear how they work together. Is the point that “Milton emphasizes” or that he uses “dialectic discourse”? How does chastity’s “importance” differ from “traditional values” in the first place? These questions need answers before the writer can revise.  While she might know how to revise phrases like “as a means to” or “in being a,” which are somewhat vague and certainly avoidable, the underlying message of the thesis hasn’t been clearly sorted out.

Luckily, revising ideas and revising the writing itself work together to illuminate each other. Choosing certain words over others can help you understand the underlying ideas better. Thinking through what you want to say can help you be appropriately critical with the words you choose.

Ultimately, “revising for clarity” is always a personal and somewhat individuated process. Each paper demands a different kind of clarity, each writer has different goals, and each issue points back to a different problem. However, the techniques and tricks we’ve presented here should be helpful in a variety of situations, and can be adapted to almost any writing project. Just remember to sympathize with your reader, and better yet, as you revise invite another real set of eyes to consider your paper (a tutor in the Writing Center, perhaps?). This will make those confusing parts apparent, if they weren’t already.

Happy clarifying — and check out some of these sources about revising for clarity which also provide specific examples of sentence-level revisions: